For example: Hall of Fame pitcher Sandy Koufax refused to pitch a game in the World Series because it was on Yom Kippur.
If you get invited to Synagogue, know that it tends to be more formal than a lot of other houses of worship.
It is always at least business causal, but usually professional attire is required, so never come in jeans!
Even though it is technically not incorrect to call someone a "Jew," coming from a non-Jewish person it will often sound and be interpreted as derogatory. The Star of David is a six pointed star that consists of two triangles. The Torah only contains the writings of the Old Testament and it is in Hebrew.
It has no real religious significance but it is our symbol of unity. Yes, that same David (the ultimate underdog) that defeated the giant Goliath. A Bar/Bat Mitzvah is the day a boy/girl gets to read from the Torah for the first time and it signifies their religious passage into adulthood.
That is why Jews give multiples of 18 as gifts at weddings, bar mitzvahs, and at other occasions.